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Vineri, Octombrie 31, 2014
   
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Centrul Istoric - Deva

Veche vatra de locuire neolitica, din epoca bronzului si din perioada daco-romana, orasul Deva s-a dezvoltat in stransa legatura cu cetatea construita pe nekul vulcanic al Dealului Cetatii. Deoarece nucleul orasului medieval s-a dezvoltat la poalele Dealului Cetatii, majoritatea obiectivelor turistice reprezentative sunt concentrate in partea veche a orasului.

Dealul Cetatii Deva - rezervatie naturala

Situat in nordul orasului, Dealul Cetatii s-a format in legatura cu activitatea vulcanica care a avut loc in neogen ( acum 10-6 milioane de ani ). Aici spre deosebire de zona Muntilor Metaliferi au existat conditii favorabile fenomenelor de tip subvulcanic, magma neajungand la suprafata. Eroziunea ulterioara a rocilor sedimentare existente deasupra vulcanitelor andezitice, a distrus formele de relief scotand in evidenta corpul subvulcanic (neck) care are un aspect circular.

Desi se inalta la o altitudine de 371 m. Dealul Cetatii domina regiunile inconjuratoare, delimitandu-se transant fata de lunca Muresului, pe care o domina cu 187 m. Declivitatea variaza in general intre 30-40 grade, pante mai mari prezentand versantul sud-estic dinspre parcul orasului pe care apar abrupturi in roca de 80-90 grade. Construirea si functionarea cetatii incepand cu secolul XIII, a condus la aparitia unui relief antropic care se pune in evidenta prin zone terasate, poteci, galerii subterane si gropi. In anul 1889 s-a construit un tunel de 20 m lungime, iar intre 1942-1943 o galerie pentru adapost antiaerian. Pana in 1941 pe versantul dinspre parc, mai jos de zidurile cetatii a existat o mica capela. In sistemul de galerii subterane functioneaza din 1971 o statie seismologica si geomagnetica.

Pe fondul unui climat bland cu influente submediteraneene, aici se dezvolta o vegetatie bogata si variata cu numeroase elemente endemice, motiv pentru care Dealul Cetatii a fost declarat in 1988 rezervatie naturala.

Pe o suprafata de 30 ha sunt protejate elemente de peisaj, flora si fauna. Vegetatia inglobeaza 1123 specii de fanerogame, 14 specii de criptograme vasculare, peste 200 specii briofite si aproape 100 specii de ciuperci si alge.

In cadrul faunei se remarca cateva exemplare de vipera cu corn.

La poalele Dealului Cetatii in partea de nord la altitudinea de 192 m apar ape minerale clorosodice, bicarbonate atermale (17-18 grade C), utilizate medical in cadrul Bailor Sarate.

Pentru a pune in valoare potentialul turistic al zonei si pentru a facilita accesul catre Cetatea Devei, in anul 2003 au inceput lucrarile pentru constuirea unei telecabine pe Dealul Cetatii.

Telecabina este singurul ascensor inclinat din Romania, iar din punct de vedere al lungimii traseului – 278 metri si a diferentei de nivel – 158 metri este primul din Europa.

Utilajul a fost achizitionat de la firma austriaca Doppelmayr, firma care mai are o telegondola instalata in tara noastra, in statiunea Mamaia.

Lucrarile au inceput in luna septembrie 2003 si au fost finalizate in luna iunie 2005.

Proiectul a fost intocmit de arhitectul Eugen Ilisiu, iar lucrarile de constructii si montajul au fost realizate de firma deveana Metal Expres.

Instalatia asigura legatura mecanica de la statia de plecare, situata la cota 180,0 metri pana la platforma intermediara a Cetatii Deva situata la cota 342,65 metri, respectiv o diferenta de nivel de circa 160,00 metri.

Cele doua statii sunt legate prin calea de rulare pe care se deplaseaza telecabina, avand lungimea de 277 de metri, sina fiind rezemata pe 24 stalpi metalici, cu fundatii izolate din beton, cu talpa din beton simplu, bloc din beton armat si piese metalice de prindere prin bulonare, iar capacitatea telecabinei este de 16 persoane.

Statia de plecare consta din platforma de plecare, deschisa si acoperita, cu suprafata de 121,77 mp si avand sina de glisare de asemenea deschisa si acoperita.

Statia de sosire se amplaseaza la cota 361,20 metri pe platforma a doua a cetatii, intre al doilea si al treilea zid.

Statia consta dintr-o incapere cu troliu si dispozitivele anexa, cu suprafata de 10,80 mp, si platforma sosire, deschisa si acoperita, cu o suprafata de 15,50 mp .

Comanda telecabinei se face prin statie, dar poate fi efectuata si prin radio si telefon, aceasta putandu-se realiza chiar de la sediul firmei din Austria. Ascensorul beneficiaza de trei sisteme de franare, ceea ce face sa ofere siguranta maxima celor care au placerea de a face o plimbare cu telecabina.


Muzeul Civilizatiei Dacice si Romane

Bazele muzeului au fost puse in anul 1880 de catre Societatea de Istorie si Arheologie a judetului Hunedoara.

Primele sectii infiintate in anul 1882, au fost cele de arheologie si etnografie. Pana in anul 1938 muzeul a avut sediul pe strada Regele Carol II (actualul Bulevard 22 Decembrie).

Din anul 1938 muzeul s-a instalat in salile Palatului Magna Curia, iar din 1966 si 1987 s-a extins in alte doua cladiri din zona parcului orasului.

In prezent functioneaza sub denumirea de Muzeul Civilizatiei Dacice si Romane, in componenta sa intrand sectiile de istorie si arheologie, stiintele naturale si arta din Deva si muzeele din localitatile Sarmizegetusa Orastie, Aurel Vlaicu, Brad, Crisan si Complexul Tebea.
Datorita pozitiei geografice a municipiului in raport cu principalele puncte de atractie turistica ale judetului, Deva este preferat ca punct de plecare pentru diverse trasee turistice: Deva - Sarmizegetusa, rezervatia naturala din Muntii Retezat, statiunile cu ape termale Geoagiu Bai si Vata de Jos, Tebea, Campul lui Neag, Manastirea Prislop, Cincis, Castelul Huniazilor – Hunedoara, Complexul cetatilor dacice din muntii Orastiei, Muzeul Aurului de la Brad, Biserica Densus, etc.


Nu ne vom pierde in epitete pentru descrierea zonei, dar lansam o invitatie pentru a descoperi singuri rezervatia mixta “Dealul Cetatii” si imprejurimile acesteia, fiind o incantare pentru cei ce doresc sa admire acest refugiu unde istoria si legenda se imbina armonios cu frumusetile naturii.

Va asteptam!

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